Feedback loops provide generic mechanisms for controlling the running, maintenance, and evolution of software and computing systems.  Feedback-loops are important models in the engineering of adaptive software, as they define the behaviour of the interactions among the control elements over the adaptation process, to guarantee system properties at run-time. Feedback loops and foundations of control theory have been successfully applied to computing systems.  In particular, they have been applied to the development of products such as IBM's Universal Database server and IBM Tivoli . From a software perspective, the autonomic (MAPE, monitor analyze plan execute) loop proposed by researchers of IBM is another valuable contribution to the application of feedback loops to the control of dynamic properties and the design and evolution of autonomic software systems.  
Having identified the assumptions about causal relations that allow for the identification of causal mechanisms, we develop a simple method to estimate the system through a series of three IV estimations. Applying this method to our question immediately highlights its usefulness by delivering a surprising finding. We find that 170% of the total effect of trade exposure on populist voting is explained by labour markets. What this means is simply that trade exposure’s other effects on voting, . those that do not run through labour markets, are in fact politically moderating. (We have not yet rigorously explored why this is the case, but suspect that it has to do with increased cross-border coordination and work in international teams to manage globally fragmented supply chains).