When the growing complexity of industrial conditions required increasing government intervention in order to assure more equal opportunities, the liberal tradition, faithful to the goal rather than to the dogma, altered its view of the state," and "there emerged the conception of a social welfare state, in which the national government had the express obligation to maintain high levels of employment in the economy, to supervise standards of life and labour, to regulate the methods of business competition, and to establish comprehensive patterns of social security. 
Deirdre McCloskey: Well, very slowly. I mean, I was at Harvard college. You know, Bernie Sanders and Jeremy Corbyn and I, in say 1960, we’re about the same age, we all had the same opinion. Capitalism is the problem, let’s have a revolution. The problem is that those two guys haven’t changed their opinion. I’ve changed my opinion on lots of things, including my gender. [00:17:00] But I then became a Keynesian because that was what was on offer in the economics department. I wanted to help the poor, so I became an economist. And then I became a kind of social engineer. We were gonna come down to Washington. In Harvard at graduate school, we were gonna fine tune the economy [inaudible 00:17:22].