Hale & Fields (2007) explored the concept of servant leadership in a Ghanaian context and found that while there are many aspects of servant leadership that are similar to leader attributes that may be endorsed across cultures such as motive arousing, confidence building, team building and foresight, some differences among cultures may limit the extent to which the servant leadership approach is viewed as effective. For example, servant leadership often focuses on follower development with the intention of increasing follower capacity to exercise creative approaches and take on greater responsibilities at work. However, these efforts may be viewed as effective primarily in settings where the ability and willingness of followers to exercise initiative and direct their own activities is viewed as desirable (Fields et al., 2006; Hofstede, 2001). In more individualistic and lower power distance cultures such as the USA, leaders who help equip followers to take initiative and undertake creative solutions on their own tend to be viewed very positively (Hale & Fields 2007). However, in higher power distance cultures, leaders whose followers take initiative on their own without waiting for explicit direction may be seen as weak leaders (Hofstede, 2001). In cultures which are more collective, followers may be not feel comfortable with leaders who emphasize follower individual initiative and creativity because these are viewed as being best accomplished through group discussion and decisions.
A lot of study has been done on self assessment in self leadership and the impact on human resource practices. Most of the authors have focused on the role of the self assessment in self leadership and how it can be used to improve the performance of the organization and the leaders. While all these approaches and study is important and very beneficial, much more research is needed on the different methods that leaders and individuals can use to assess themselves on their leadership skills and attributes. This will help to bring in some light on the issues that leaders are likely to face as they undertake the assessment and the emerging changes that are occurring in the environment. Research is also needed on the different characteristics and attributes that the self assessments try to highlight and identify. The individuals also tend to use different sources of data to help them to identify their strong and weak areas as well as their development needs. Research should also focus on the different sources of data that the individuals use when carrying out the self assessments and the important role that they all play in the development process.