But generally most critics think of the novel as jazz-like in its experimental structure, the sense of improvisation that the prose of the novel suggests, particularly the increasing improvisational nature of the Invisible Man’s speeches, the slightly weird, off-kilter way that the characters relate to one another and to the narrative itself. Was the entire novel the narrator’s hallucination? The novel certainly suggests that jazz is a part of a larger tapestry of black creativity, founded in black folk life, including black speech and sermonizing, black styles of dress, and black eating habits. And this thread of black creativity has had largely a liberating effect on American life even as it, ironically, represents a form of discipline on the part of its inventors.
In October 1922 Mansfield moved to Georges Gurdjieff's Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man in Fontainebleau , France, where she was put under the care of Olgivanna Lazovitch Hinzenburg (who later married Frank Lloyd Wright ). As a guest rather than a pupil of Gurdjieff, Mansfield was not required to take part in the rigorous routine of the institute,  but she spent much of her time there with her mentor, Alfred Richard Orage , and her last letters inform Murry of her attempts to apply some of Gurdjieff's teachings to her own life.