Utilitarian bioethics essay

The ethical concerns surrounding prenatal HIV testing are different in developing countries. To date, the cost of antiretroviral prophylaxis has been prohibitive and therefore, for the most part, pregnant women do not receive it.( 33,34 ) Although knowing their HIV status may be helpful in guiding decisions concerning breastfeeding, in many circumstances, bottle-feeding is not a feasible option because of cost and lack of access to clean water( 35 ). Accordingly, determining HIV status may be of limited benefit. Moreover, such determination could subject women to risk of physical harm or loss of housing and support.( 36,37 ) The benefits of testing will increase as prenatal antiretroviral prophylaxis, along with support services, becomes increasingly available.( 38 )

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As an aside, mites live not just in our beds but on our skin as well. I couldn't find authoritative data on face-mite populations, but here's one very rough attempt. One study took mite samples from six facial locations with cumulative surface area of 10 cm 2 (p. 444). Mite counts on normal subjects averaged individuals (Table I, p. 445). This suggests roughly 1 mite/cm 2 . I doubt the sampling sites were perfectly representative of all areas of the skin on the human head, but assume they were. Assume the human head is a sphere with radius ~10 cm. Its surface area is then 4 * pi * radius 2 = 4 * pi * 10 2 = 1256 cm 2 , which implies ~10 3 mites per face and ~10 13 mites added over all human faces. I don't know if this is about right or way off. By comparison with the bed dust-mite numbers above, it seems somewhat low, but maybe vastly more mites can live on the copious quantities of dead skin in beds than on the small amounts of dead skin and oils on people.

Utilitarian bioethics essay

utilitarian bioethics essay


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